2020中考书面表达写作指导:定语从句语法

发布时间:2020-08-21 10:30:20
作者:远皓

一、定语从句概念

定语从句(attributive clause),顾名思义,就是一个句子作定语从属于主句。定语一般是由形容词充当,所以定语从句又称作形容词从句。另外,定语从句是由关系代词或关系副词引导的,故又称作关系从句。

定语从句一般放在它所修饰的名词或代词之后,这种名词或代词被称作先行词。请看示例:

The woman who lives next door is a teacher.

先行词 定语从句

在所有的从句中,算定语从句最难掌握,因为汉语里没有定语从句,汉语里只有定语,而且总是放在名词之前来修饰名词。

二、关系代词引导的定语从句

关系代词代替前面的先行词,并且在定语从句中充当句子成分,可以作主语、宾语、定语等。常见的关系代词有:who, that, which。它们的主格、宾格和所有格如下表所示:

先行词 主格 宾格 所有格

人 who whom whose

物 which which whose of which

人、物 that that —

(一)关系代词who, whom和 whose的用法

who代替人,是主格,在定语从句中作主语。例如:

An architect is a person who designs buildings. 建筑师是设计房屋的人。

I will never forget the teacher who taught us chemistry in the first year of my senior middle school. 我将永远不会忘记在高一时教我们化学的那位老师。

Anyone who wants to apply for this job must send us the resume by email first. 想应聘这个职位的任何人都必须先通过电子邮件向我们发送

whom代替人,是宾格,在定语从句作宾语,在非正式英语常可省略。例如:

Do you know the gentleman whom we met in the school library yesterday? 昨天我们在学校图书馆里遇到的那位先生你认识吗?

This is the student whom my father taught ten years ago. 这是我爸爸十年前教的学生。

The girl who I saw is called Mary. 我见到的那个女孩名叫玛丽。(在非正式英语中,主格who代替了宾格whom,亦可省略)

whose一般代替人,有时亦可代替物,是所有格,在定语从句作定语。例如:

The girl student whose father is a senior engineer used to study abroad. 其父是一位高级工程师的那个女学生过去在国外留学。

Do you know the name of the hotel whose window we can see here? 我们这儿能看到窗户的那个宾馆叫什么名字,你知道吗?(关系代词whose指代先行词hotel,正式用法应该用of which。whose window=the window of which,意思 是:the window of the hotel。)

(二)关系代词which的用法

which代替物,在定语从句作主语或宾语,作宾语时还可省略。例如:

I do not like stories which have unhappy endings.

我不喜欢有不幸结局的小说。(which可以换成that)

Tom works for a factory which makes watches.

汤姆在一个制表厂工作。(which可以换成that)

(三)关系代词that的用法

that既可指人又可指物,在当代英语中大多指物,在定语从句作主语或宾语,作宾语时还可省略。例如:

Is she the girl that sells newspapers?

她是卖报纸的那个女孩吗?(that可以换成who)

Where is the ice-cream that was in the fridge?

放在冰箱的冰激凌哪儿去了?(that可以换成which)

Is this the book that you want to buy?

这是你要买的那本书吗? (that可以换成which,在定语从句作宾语,还可以省略)

三、关系副词引导的定语从句

常用的关系副词只有三个:when, where, why,在定语从句中充当时间、地点和原因状语。它们的用法大家不妨记住一个口诀:

the time when

the place where

the reason why

(一)关系副词when的用法

关系副词when代替的先行词表示的是时间,when在定语从句作时间状语。例如:

In Beijing July and August are the months when it rains very often.

北京的七月和八月是常下雨的月份。(when先行词是months)

Do you remember the day when we first went to the Summer Palace?

你还记得我们第一次去颐和园的那一天吗?(when先行词是day, 当代英语里when可以用that替代,这时关系代词that就变成了表示时间的关系副词)

I haven’t seen her since the year when I left Tokyo.

自从我离开东京的那一年我就一直没见到过她。(when先行词是year,同样when可以用that代替)

(二)关系副词where的用法

关系副词where代替的先行词表示的是地点,where在定语从句作地点状语。例如:

During the Spring Festival I went back to the town where I was brought up.

春节期间,我回到了生我养

。(where的先行词是town)

This is the place where Li Bai once lived.

这是李白曾经生活过的地方。(where先行词是place)

上面这个句子不可以将where改为that,因为that不能作为表示地点的关系副词。试比较下句:

This is the place that Li Bai once visited.

这是李白曾经游览过的地方。(that的先行词同样是place,但这个that是关系代词,在定语从句中作宾语,可以省略,还可以用which替换)

(三)关系副词why的用法

关系副词why代替的先行词表示的是原因,why在定语从句作原因状语。例如:

The reason why I am phoning you is to ask you whether you have got my email.

我打电话给你的原因是想问问你是否收到了我的电子邮件。(why先行词是reason, 当代英语里why可以用that替代,这时关系代词that就变成了表示原因的关系副词,还可以将why省略)

This is the reason why he came late to school.

这就是他为什么上学迟到的原因。(why先行词是reason,why可以用that替代,还可以省略)

注意:如果上面的句子将the reason省略,那么这个句子就变成了(This is why he came late to school. )表语从句,句子意思丝毫未变。

四、特殊关系代词as引导的定语从句

as是个比较特殊的关系代词,一是用在某些句型搭配里,二是独立于主句之外。下面分别讲解。

(一)在固定搭配as…as, so…as, such…as, the same…as中,as引导定语从句

You may take as many books as you want.

你想要拿多少书就拿多少。(第一个as是副词,修饰many的;第二个as才是关系代词,代替先行词books,在定语从句中作宾语)

I have got such a computer as yours.

我有一台你这样的电脑。(as是关系代词,代替先行词computer,在定语从句中作表语,因为yours后省略了is )

I have never seen so beautiful a place as Guilin.

我从未见过像桂林那样美丽的地方。(as是关系代词,代替先行词place,在定语从句中作表语,因为Guilin后省略了is )

(二)独立于主句之外,as引导定语从句

As we know,

the earth turns around the sun. 正如我们所知,地球围绕太阳旋转。

As is known to us,

(As we know和 As is known to us均为定语从句,as分别作宾语和主语,替代后面的主句。)

Taiwan is, as you know, is an inseparable part of China.

你知道,台湾是中国不可分割的一部分。(关系代词as指代整个主句,在定语从句中作宾语。)

五、关系代词who, which与that的区别

(一)关系代词who与that的区别

1. 当关系代词用作主语时,多用主格who。例如:

He who loses hope loses all.

失去希望的人就失去一切。(先行词为代词he, they, any, all, one等时,多用who)

I met Alice, who told me that she was learning Chinese.

我遇见艾丽斯,她告诉我她在学汉语。(在非限制性定语从句中,用who)

2. 当关系代词用作介词后的宾语时,用宾格whom,不用that。例如:

The man to whom our headmaster talked just now is our English teacher.

我们校长刚才与他谈话的那个人是我们的英语老师。(介词与关系代词紧密相连时,只能用宾格whom,不可用主格who)

注意:介词与关系代词不是紧密相连时,或者说介词放在句子后面时,这时可以用主格who,也可用that,还可以省略关系代词。因此,上面的这句话还可以有如下四种说法:

(1) The man whom our headmaster talked to just now is our English teacher.

(2) The man who our headmaster talked to just now is our English teacher.

(3) The man that our headmaster talked to just now is our English teacher.

(4) The man our headmaster talked to just now is our English teacher.

第4句简洁、自然,所以口语中用得最多。

3. 当关系代词泛指人时,多用that。例如:

He is a man that is never afraid of failure.

他是个从不怕失败的人。(that用来泛指人)

4. 当关系代词出现在who开头的疑问句时,应用that。例如:

Who is the girl that is talking to Tom in English?

用英语同汤姆交谈的那个女孩是谁?(避免重复使用who,以免造成误解或语义含混不清)

代词 关系 定语


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